Myths in themselves are nothing but once whole nations believe in them, the consequences can be disastrous. Militarily they had lost the contest in 1764. Apart from being a commercial entity many of its officials took a deep interest in emancipation of the population and eradication of many genuine social evils and outmoded practices. Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, continued to expand and became the most prosperous city of India. After 1845-46 (First Sikh War) and 1848-49 (Second Sikh War) the EEIC found that they could recruit good soldier material from Punjab and trans Indus about whose fighting qualities in case of Sikhs the EEIC was convinced by virtue of the excellent fighting performance in the two Sikh wars. Militarily it rendered Oudh incapable of concluding an effective alliance with the Mahrattas or another power since now Oudh was surrounded on all three sides by EEIC’s territory whereas previously the EEIC territories were only on its eastern borders. Page-194- Later Mughal History of the Punjab- Hari Ram Gupta-First Published-Lahore-1944-Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. Page- 60. The second of 1.00 million Pound Sterlings in 1815 and the third of 1.00 million Pound Sterlings in 1825. But this was irrelevant because both the parties used religion just as one of the means to a personal or political end. It would be unfair to brand all EEIC officials as Christian fanatics. Origin of the Mutiny . (2) West of Indus they had to eat food which they considered impure and this also soiled their caste. A major cause of the outbreak of the revolt was the fear among the people that the British government was determined to destroy their religion and convert Indians to Christianity. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. It became clearer in 1797 during the Wazir Ali affair and by 1801 it was crystal clear. The 1857 mutiny is a rubbing stone for the Islamist and Marxist establishment. A major cause of the outbreak of the revolt was the fear among the people that the British government was determined to destroy their religion and convert Indians to Christianity. Amit Mishra The Hindu widows remarriage act of 1856 was another radical piece of legislation which allowed Hindu widows to remarry, something which in previous history of India they could never do. With profound insight, Sleeman warned Dalhousie that Oudh’s annexation would have a very negative effect on Bengal Army, bulk of whose Sepoys belonged to Oudh. Page-17-The Cambridge History of India-Volume VI-The Indian Empire-1858-1918-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987. The sever famines which devoured millions of people remained issues, that were never addressed. Nature of neocolonial Indian scholarship. Dalhousie encouraged recruitment of troops from Nepal and Punjab. It was the first great struggle of the Indians for freedom from British imperialism. Revolt of 18557. Thus, from the above discussion, we can say that the main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were due to various policies introduced by the British, the rapid spread of English education, imposing of heavy duties. Page-249- A History of Persia-Volume II Brigadier General Sir Percy Sykes-Macmillan and Company Limited-Saint Martins Press-New York-1958.’Nadir was not content to remain a mere brigand’ in words of Percy Sykes.Leaders of third world countries are much bigger brigands in terms of white collar fraud and juggling with bank loans etc! 54. Subsequently geographical and logistical factors forced him to also act as a part settler and thus he made present ‘Punjab’ and ‘Frontier’ a province of his empire. It was far more than a mutiny…. Pages-684 & 685- A Dictionary of Modern Indian History-Parshotam Mehra-Oxford University Press-New Delhi1985. Good article on the war of independence. 50. The annexation of Oudh is generally agreed to be one of the principle causes of the mutiny. This was the General Service Enlistment Act of 1856. 64. It became the 2nd Bengal Light Cavalry only in 1796 85. Ibid. Ibid. Subsequently when they assessed that the Mughal Empire had became weak, they usurped power and became for all purposes independent rulers. A fine essay. There were two mutinies in the two respective regiments of Bengal Army over stoppage of allowances. It was a modern city of palaces spacious gardens and paved road. This Revolt was initiated by the sepoys of the company, so it has been commonly termed as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. Page-265-Philip Mason-Op Cit. Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. ‘Settlers’ or ‘Plunderers’. Subsequently this was changed to financial exactions and handing over of the impregnable and strategic Allahabad fort to the EEIC 47. The civil servants, the governors, all ranks and appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man. It did take the EEIC almost one year to recapture Oudh. The equation of the Gangetic Belt of North India with India seems to be a common trope with many modern day Pakistanis. Page-73 & 74 – Lieut F.G Cardew-Op Cit. New palaces continued to be built, roads were constructed and widened and the people of Oudh had a pride which was much more than inhabitants of any part of India except the Hyderabad state, another British lackey in the south. Thorburn-First Published 1894-Reprinted Usha Publications-New Delhi-1987. Also, the import of British Machine to India, the exclusion of Indian sepoys at higher ranks in … It is however important since it illustrates bad faith and greed on both sides and the sufferers in this case were the common people. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. He saw the EEIC retreat from Kabul to Jalalabad of a column in which only one doctor reached Jalalabad. Muslims killed Muslims and Hindus killed Hindus for simple power or for patronage or economic benefit. REVOLT OF 1857 Causes of the revolt of 1857 These are broadly categorized into four parts: Political causes: LORD DALHOUSIE: A. Doctrine of lapse. 87. • Dr S.N. But the essential fact was that the Bengal Sepoy was an Indian and a subject. Unpopular revenue settlement Page-192- The Punjab in Peace and War. Causes of Revolt of 1857 Published: November 1, 2016 The various causes of the Mutiny of 1857 can be classified into several heads such as political, administrative, economic, Socio-religious, military and immediate causes. Pages-513 & 518- The History of Christianity in India-Sir William Kaye, 77. 2.1 Superior British Army; 2.2 Limited Supplies and Lack of Modern Communication; 3 Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. From 1798 to 1856 their guiding principle of conduct was to somehow stay in power, however much Oudh is reduced in sovereignty or territory or in financial terms. 75. 86. 1069 Words 5 Pages. 58. This enraged a considerable part of the populace. It took place among intensely religious Muslims and Hindus and don’t expect American Founding fathers among them . 72. This was another cause of outrage that resulted to the rise of the revolt of 1857. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Page-136-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit.The date of coronation was 18th Zil Haj or 9th October 1819.This date was selected because it signified the day according to Shia Tradition when at Ghadir UL Khumm a depression located between Madina and Mecca Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) paused and revealed to his assembled companions that Ali would be the first Imam and political successor after the Prophet’s death. The second loan was never repaid and instead a worthless part of Terai forest territory taken from Nepal was given to Oudh58. This ‘Discrimination’ was a major underlying cause of the rebellion of 1857. In 1857 however the slogan ‘Hinduism’ or ‘Islam’ against Christianity was used in order to rationalize a hatred which had resulted from discriminatory policies, based on racism which had little connection with religion. In 1857, the Rebels demonstrated bitterness towards foreign rule, even though this foreign rule would later try to improve India’s medical services. The Cause And Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857 1814 Words | 8 Pages. The rest of India was quiet. 71. Dalhousie was aware that the policy of annexation was creating unrest. Outram however did not carry out this order since he felt that it could be done after the summer. 43. But alas! This severely restricted the mobility of the Bengal Army. It is possible that their peculiar Afghan origin may have played a part in their reluctance to charge the Afghans at Perwan! In fact, multiple causes i.e., social-religious-political- economic worked together to produce the rebellion. The same territory was returned to Nepal in 1858 59 as a reward for sending a force to assist the EEIC in the final capture of Lucknow in March 1858. Page-586-Cambridge History- British India-1497-1858-Op Cit 81. The transition of rebellion or a bid for independence is always a slow and subtle process. Two aspects were important in this regard i.e. Page-171-Cambridge History- Indian Empire-Op Cit. 34. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. » Introduction of the cartridge which was believed to coated with pigs and cows skin which is strictly prohibited for Muslims and Hindu respectively. There were cases where estates were rightfully held but the proofs of ownership were missing. 73. They were given a preferential treatment in their private dealings with Oudh state officials once they visited their houses and villages on long leave. Show More. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s … 1.2 Weak Leadership of the 1857 Mutiny; 2 Military Causes of Failure of 1857 Revolt. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. The racial barrier which made it impossible for a native to ever be an officer was a major factor in producing alienation. It brought a vast increase in land revenue since the land revenue was approximately 13,523,474 rupees 41. Page-509-Concise Oxford History of India-Op Cit. By 1764 after having won at Buxar from the political and military point of view the English East India Company (EEIC) was the master of north India at least as far as all territory of the Oudh state extended. The foremost cause of resentment in the people of Oudh against the EEIC was its extortionist policy from 1775 onwards. There was however one subtle contradiction in all this. They, therefore, resolved in end of 1798 to transfer him to Calcutta. Ahmad Shah Abdali later on portrayed as a purely Muslim hero could find no better governor of Muslim majority Lahore than ‘Kabuli Mal’34 a Hindu! Heavy tax was imposed on opium which was a very frequently used drug. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. News of British reverses in the Crimean War of 1856 also encouraged Bengal Army sepoys belief that the Britisher was not invincible. Sir Syed writing in the post-1857 era declared ‘Exclusion’ as the principle cause of the rebellion35b. Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. 63. Keeping in view the origins of the Oudh Nawab we see that his ancestors were the governors of the Mughal Emperor in Oudh. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. Causes of 1857 Revolt The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. Page-109-Map illustrating area annexed in 1775- North India between Empires-Oudh,the Mughals and the British-1720-1801-Richard.B.Barnett –Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987 and Page-233-Cambridge History of India-British India-1497-1858-Op Cit. The dispersion of British troops and their being outnumbered overwhelmingly in 1857 was the final blow. Everything was mixed, diverse and complex. Ibid. 35a. Page-116 & 120- Marquess of Dalhousie- W. W Hunter-(Ruler of India Series)-Reprinted-Delhi- 1962 69. The East India Company was there to stay. The Bengal Army did fight for EEIC for hundred years but by 1857 it was no longer the force that it was in 1757. 1 Administrative Reasons for Failure of 1857 Revolt. Before 1757 all contenders in Indian politics were either Hindus or Muslims. He was however forced to leave for England due to illness. Hindu-Muslim Unity Factor. But even then area east of west Punjab remained his area to be plundered. 93. at 4% interest61. This proposal was defeated due to opposition on part of Sir Charles Wood who stated that ‘No two Indians could be found to represent adequately the diversity of Hindu and Muslim society’.35a There was an element of truth in Charles Wood’s argument but it was just a minute fraction of the truth against the whole argument in favour of having Indian members. 91. During the discussions while drafting the India Act of 1853 in the British Parliament a proposal was made to have Indian members in the viceroy’s legislative council. Cause of Revolt of 1857. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. What was true was the fact that the rebellion lasted for a far longer time because bulk of the Bengal Army was recruited from the Hindu Rajput and Hindu Jat population of Oudh. English East India Company’s Resident to Nawab Vizier of Oudh- 16 March 1801- 580: 342-Home Miscellaneous Series -Common Wealth Relations Office-London 45. Sir Charles Napier disbanded one and restored the allowances for the second. He succeeded his father Asif-ud-Daula who ruled Oudh from 1775 to 1797 in September, 1797. His arrogant and racist behaviour immediately alienated all those people who came into contact with him69. There were definitely some Mughal Kings and Governors who at least tried to ensure that no woman was forced to commit Satti (Self-immolation on her husband’s death) against her own free will, but there was no definite policy and varied from ruler to ruler73. 91. x Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. The cartridges for Enfield Rifle to be introduced in India were also to be manufactured in India by local contractors. It was mainly fought against the biggest East India Company which acted as the supreme power at that time. Causes of 1857 Revolt. Military Causes: The Revolt of 1857 started as a sepoy mutiny. Dalhousie was a civilian and a young man. Political Causes: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till 1848-1856. Dalhousie had given detailed instructions to Outram regarding disarming the populace of Oudh who at the time of annexation were well armed since in those days security of the common citizen or village was their own affair. 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